gRPC Go

GothamGo 2015

Sameer Ajmani

Tech Lead Manager, Go team, Google

Video

This talk was presented at GothamGo in New York City, October 2015.

2

RPC isn't just Remote Procedure Call

In Go, an RPC starts a goroutine running on the server and provides message passing between the client and server goroutines.

Unary RPC: the client sends a request to the server, then the server sends a response.

Streaming RPC: the client and server may each send one or more messages.

An RPC ends when:

This talk will show how we connect RPCs and streams with goroutines and channels.

3

Unary RPC: one request, one response

Example: a mobile Maps app requests a route from point A to point B.

On the client side, an RPC blocks until it's done or canceled.

A client uses multiple goroutines to run many RPCs simultaneously.

Each RPC is an exchange between a client goroutine and a server goroutine.

4

Streaming RPC provides bidirectional message-passing

A client starts a stream with a server.

Messages sent on a stream are delivered FIFO.

Many streams can run simultaneously between the same client and server.

The transport provides buffering and flow control.

Examples:

5

gRPC is a new RPC system from Google

Provides RPC and streaming RPC

Ten languages: C, Java, Go, C++, Node.js, Python, Ruby, Objective-C, PHP, and C#
IDL: Proto3
Transport: HTTP2

golang.org/x/net/context for deadlines, cancelation, and request-scoped values
golang.org/x/net/trace for real-time request traces and connection logging

6

gRPC users

150+ imports of google.golang.org/grpc on godoc.org

7

Demos and Code: Google search

8

Protocol definition

syntax = "proto3";

service Google {
  // Search returns a Google search result for the query.
  rpc Search(Request) returns (Result) {
  }
}

message Request {
  string query = 1;
}

message Result {
  string title = 1;
  string url = 2;
  string snippet = 3;
}
9

Generated code

protoc ./search.proto --go_out=plugins=grpc:.
type GoogleClient interface {
    // Search returns a Google search result for the query.
    Search(ctx context.Context, in *Request, opts ...grpc.CallOption) (*Result, error)
}
type GoogleServer interface {
    // Search returns a Google search result for the query.
    Search(context.Context, *Request) (*Result, error)
}
type Request struct {
    Query string `protobuf:"bytes,1,opt,name=query" json:"query,omitempty"`
}
type Result struct {
    Title   string `protobuf:"bytes,1,opt,name=title" json:"title,omitempty"`
    Url     string `protobuf:"bytes,2,opt,name=url" json:"url,omitempty"`
    Snippet string `protobuf:"bytes,3,opt,name=snippet" json:"snippet,omitempty"`
}
10

System diagram

11

Frontend runs Search on both backends and returns first result

12

Demo client --mode=search

13

Client code

14

Client code (main)

import pb "golang.org/x/talks/2015/gotham-grpc/search"
func main() {
    flag.Parse()

    // Connect to the server.
    conn, err := grpc.Dial(*server, grpc.WithInsecure())
    if err != nil {
        log.Fatalf("fail to dial: %v", err)
    }
    defer conn.Close()
    client := pb.NewGoogleClient(conn)

    // Run the RPC.
    switch *mode {
    case "search":
        search(client, *query)
    case "watch":
        watch(client, *query)
    default:
        log.Fatalf("unknown mode: %q", *mode)
    }
}
15

Client code (search)

func search(client pb.GoogleClient, query string) {
    ctx, cancel := context.WithTimeout(context.Background(), 80*time.Millisecond)
    defer cancel()
    req := &pb.Request{Query: query}
    res, err := client.Search(ctx, req)
    if err != nil {
        log.Fatal(err)
    }
    fmt.Println(res)
}

RPCs block but can be canceled using a Context.

gRPC propagates cancelation from client to server.

16

Backend code

17

Backend code (main)

    lis, err := net.Listen("tcp", fmt.Sprintf(":%d", 36061+*index)) // RPC port
    if err != nil {
        log.Fatalf("failed to listen: %v", err)
    }
    g := grpc.NewServer()
    pb.RegisterGoogleServer(g, new(server))
    g.Serve(lis)

new(server) must implement the GoogleServer interface:

type GoogleServer interface {
    // Search returns a Google search result for the query.
    Search(context.Context, *Request) (*Result, error)
    // Watch returns a stream of Google search results for the query.
    Watch(*Request, Google_WatchServer) error
}

Each call to Search or Watch runs in its own goroutine.

18

Backend code (search)

ctx.Done is closed when the RPC is canceled, times out, or returns:

func (s *server) Search(ctx context.Context, req *pb.Request) (*pb.Result, error) {
    d := randomDuration(100 * time.Millisecond)
    logSleep(ctx, d)
    select {
    case <-time.After(d):
        return &pb.Result{
            Title: fmt.Sprintf("result for [%s] from backend %d", req.Query, *index),
        }, nil
    case <-ctx.Done():
        return nil, ctx.Err()
    }
}

If tracing is enabled, log the sleep duration:

func logSleep(ctx context.Context, d time.Duration) {
    if tr, ok := trace.FromContext(ctx); ok {
        tr.LazyPrintf("sleeping for %s", d)
    }
}
19

Frontend code

20

Frontend code (search)

Search returns as soon as it gets the first result.
gRPC cancels the remaining backend.Search RPCs by via ctx:

func (s *server) Search(ctx context.Context, req *pb.Request) (*pb.Result, error) {
    c := make(chan result, len(s.backends))
    for _, b := range s.backends {
        go func(backend pb.GoogleClient) {
            res, err := backend.Search(ctx, req)
            c <- result{res, err}
        }(b)
    }
    first := <-c
    return first.res, first.err
}
type result struct {
    res *pb.Result
    err error
}
21

Streaming RPC

22

Add Watch to the Google service

syntax = "proto3";

service Google {
  // Search returns a Google search result for the query.
  rpc Search(Request) returns (Result) {
  }
  // Watch returns a stream of Google search results for the query.
  rpc Watch(Request) returns (stream Result) {
  }
}

message Request {
  string query = 1;
}

message Result {
  string title = 1;
  string url = 2;
  string snippet = 3;
}
23

Generated code

type GoogleClient interface {
    // Search returns a Google search result for the query.
    Search(ctx context.Context, in *Request, opts ...grpc.CallOption) (*Result, error)
    // Watch returns a stream of Google search results for the query.
    Watch(ctx context.Context, in *Request, opts ...grpc.CallOption) (Google_WatchClient, error)
}
type GoogleServer interface {
    // Search returns a Google search result for the query.
    Search(context.Context, *Request) (*Result, error)
    // Watch returns a stream of Google search results for the query.
    Watch(*Request, Google_WatchServer) error
}
type Google_WatchClient interface {
    Recv() (*Result, error)
    grpc.ClientStream
}
type Google_WatchServer interface {
    Send(*Result) error
    grpc.ServerStream
}
24

Frontend runs Watch on both backends and merges results

25

Demo client --mode=watch

26

Client code

27

Client code (watch)

func watch(client pb.GoogleClient, query string) {
    ctx, cancel := context.WithCancel(context.Background())
    defer cancel()
    req := &pb.Request{Query: query}
    stream, err := client.Watch(ctx, req)
    if err != nil {
        log.Fatal(err)
    }
    for {
        res, err := stream.Recv()
        if err == io.EOF {
            fmt.Println("and now your watch is ended")
            return
        }
        if err != nil {
            log.Fatal(err)
        }
        fmt.Println(res)
    }
}
28

Backend code

29

Backend code (watch)

func (s *server) Watch(req *pb.Request, stream pb.Google_WatchServer) error {
    ctx := stream.Context()
    for i := 0; ; i++ {
        d := randomDuration(1 * time.Second)
        logSleep(ctx, d)
        select {
        case <-time.After(d):
            err := stream.Send(&pb.Result{
                Title: fmt.Sprintf("result %d for [%s] from backend %d", i, req.Query, *index),
            })
            if err != nil {
                return err
            }
        case <-ctx.Done():
            return ctx.Err()
        }
    }
}
30

Frontend code

31

Frontend code (watch)

func (s *server) Watch(req *pb.Request, stream pb.Google_WatchServer) error {
    ctx := stream.Context()
    c := make(chan result)
    var wg sync.WaitGroup
    for _, b := range s.backends {
        wg.Add(1)
        go func(backend pb.GoogleClient) {
            defer wg.Done()
            watchBackend(ctx, backend, req, c)
        }(b)
    }
    go func() {
        wg.Wait()
        close(c)
    }()
    for res := range c {
        if res.err != nil {
            return res.err
        }
        if err := stream.Send(res.res); err != nil {
            return err
        }
    }
    return nil
32

Frontend code (watchBackend)

Watch returns on first error; this closes ctx.Done and signals watchBackend to exit.

func watchBackend(ctx context.Context, backend pb.GoogleClient, req *pb.Request, c chan<- result) {
    stream, err := backend.Watch(ctx, req)
    if err != nil {
        select {
        case c <- result{err: err}:
        case <-ctx.Done():
        }
        return
    }
    for {
        res, err := stream.Recv()
        select {
        case c <- result{res, err}:
            if err != nil {
                return
            }
        case <-ctx.Done():
            return
        }
    }
}
33

gRPC extends the Go programming model over the network

Go gRPC works smoothly with goroutines, channels, and cancelation.

It is an excellent fit for building parallel, distributed, and streaming systems.

34

References

Thanks to Qi Zhao, David Symonds, Brad Fitzpatrick, and the rest.

Questions?

Sameer Ajmani
Tech Lead Manager, Go team, Google
@Sajma
sameer@golang.org

35

Thank you

Sameer Ajmani

Tech Lead Manager, Go team, Google

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